Mt. Fuji & Sabo Project

Front PageMt. Fuji & Sabo ProjectHistory > History of Disasters

History of Disasters

Collapsed sediment streams from the southwest at the foot of the mountain stream, like Osawa failure, has often hit the lower areas of debris flows through the river channels diried ordinaly in the snowmelt season and heavy rain seasons.
These streams would often spread themselves, damaging rice and crop fields, and streams with flood toward lower areas again. Those residents that lived along the river have often suffered from many disasters by these chains of sediment streams. With that, it has caused the riverbed to rise at the Urui River and bring the large deposit problem of sediment to Tagonoura Port.
The debris flow at Mt. Fuji would occur during typhoon seasons, rainy seasons, and also during the snow-melting season of early winter and late spring. This is a characteristic point of Mt. Fuji.

History of disasters

Click    and show details of the disaster
The top of Mt. Fuji collapsed due to a large earthquake.
1707 Mt. Fuji erupted with a large earthquake.  
1828 Kanda River was buried from the heavy flood  
1835 The foot area of Mt. Fuji was unprecedentedly damaged by a snowmelt flood. 天保6年の災害へ
1851 A large number of houses were washed away and collapsed by storms and heavy rain.  
1884 A catastrophe was created from a large heavy rain, hitting the foot zone of Mt. Fuji.  
1907 Heavy turbid water occurred at Shiba River, Urui River, and downstream (Fujinomiya City, Fuji City, etc.)  
1917 A sediment of estuary at Urui River brought large flood damages.
The flood reached some villages around Ukisimanuma area (swamp groups of wetlands across the Numazu City and Fuji City), Motoyoshiwara and Tagonoura, Kashima, Yoshinaga, Tsugou, as well as Ukishimamura and Haramachi.
1930 Urui River flooding caused a large damage.(no document left)  
1932 Urui River Bridge and Tomiyasu Bridge were washed away and the river embankments collapsed in several place by Urui River flooding.  
1941 Heavy rain, melted snow, and a large sediment streamed from Osawa at Mt. Fuji.
The upstream riverbed of Urui River at Fujinomiya City was 1.8m higher.
Sediment floods reached Okamachi, Iwamatsu, Tagonoura, and Yoshiwara gave a devastating damage to the rice seedlings and cabbage fields in Kashima.
1945 The Urui River embankments of Tenma River open channel and Kawakubo collapsed over 130m. Nearly 30 hectare areas were covered from the flooding and the Minobe Rail Line was stopped by large sediments.  
1946 The Urui River embankments of Takaokatenma collapsed over 250m and the flood wiped out the rice that were just planted.  
1952 The Urui River embankments of Yoshiwara Collapsed over 150m.
Houses inundated over floor: 700
Houses inundated under floor: 2,300
Flooded arable land: 150 hectares
1952 The Urui River embankments of Yoshiwara Collapsed in 10 different places by the Dinah typhoon.
Washed Bridge: 1
Houses inundated: 1,000 and over
Spoiled arable land: nearly 1,000 hectares
1953 From the typhoon No. 13, the right bank of Urui River that was upstream of Tagonoura Bridge collapsed over 50m.
Flooded paddy fields: 200 hectares
Affected companies: Honsyu paper industry, Daisyouwa paper industry, and more.
1954 From the typhoon No. 14, the opposite embankments at the above site collapsed over 53m.
Housed inundated: Yoshiwara area
Impact on traffic: National route 1 was closed. National Railway was in crawl operation.
Affected companies: 100 over factories
Total damage cost: 10 billion yen
1956 The Urui River embankments around Yoshiwara Collapsed.
Houses inundated: over 75
1961 The embankments at Shiba River and Kamiide collapsed.  
1963 The torrential rain attacked Fujinomiya at 3 o’clock in the afternoon for 40 minutes.
Houses inundated: 100
1966 The Urui River flooded.
Houses inundated: 67
Spoiled arable land: nerly 40 hectares
Damaged road: 5 points
1972 The avalanche from the peak of the Osawa failure area and the rainfall brought the large-scale debris flow on May 1st. A large amount of sediment from the peak spread to the alluvial fan areas at mount foot, and the mud flow reached Tagonoura Port through Urui River. Some sabo facilities in alluvial fan areas had damaged and lost their flow control function.
On May 5th, June 8th, July 12th, the torrential rain hit again, causing the debris flow to the alluvial fan areas each time. There were great damage on farming products and arable lands along the Urui River.
On August 24, it was recorded the worst hourly precipitation of 153mm/h that Shizuoka Prefecture had ever experienced.
1979 The debris flow occurred in Osawa River twice over April 8 and May 7 to 8. This was considered to become a risk to damage Shiba River basin system.
On October 19th, debris flow damaged the Urui River, Ashitori River, Kazamatsuri River, Yumisawa River, Bonpu River, Dempozawa River, Kourui River, Wada River, Akabuchi River and more. Assignments of national support project: Urui River(especial maintenance area), Yumizawa River basin including the Nakazawa River downstream portion.

Snowmelt flooding disaster in 1835

The high temperature from the beginning of April in 1835 panicked everybody because it was like a summer weather even on April 5th and 6th.
This abnormal weather melted the perpetual snow on Mt. Fuji. Mowing the standing trees and rolling many rocks, the mass of snow attacked the foot area of the mountain on April 7th.
Immediately, villages in the vicinity of Fujinomiya were covered with mudflows and the villagers and horses died one after another. Many houses were buried in the sediment at last.
The riverbed of Urui River rose up at once causing the farms to be severely damaged which made the farmers revolt.


Snowmelt flooding disaster in 1835
'Historical picture of sediment-related disaster in Mt. Fuji.' (Iwamotomura-bunko)
Property of National Institute of Japanese Literature.
Cited from Shizuoka Historical Information Center providing version.

disaster in 1972

In 1972, there was a rainfall of more than 300mm both on May 1st and May 5th. Additionally, the abnormal weather caused the melting of snow and the avalanche from the peak, and an extraordinary amount of debris flow from the peak flow down.
The debris flow spreaded to alluvial fan areas and the mudflow reached Tagonoura Port through Urui River. A large amount of sediment carried the port by rushing streams and deposits.
On June 8th and July 12th, the debris flow damaged some rivers, roads, bridges, water pipes, and diversion weirs.
On July 12th, the Urui River flooded. The silt or gravel rushed into Shiraitoryo, a facility for the health of the elderly, but the people who stayed there evacuated safely.
※Click the picture and enlarge in new window

Disaster in 1979

※Click the picture and enlarge in new window
In 1979
On April 8th and May 7th to 8th, debris flow of the Osawa River caused the disaster in lower reaches.
On October 19th, debris flow damaged the Urui River, Ashitori River, Kazamatsuri River, Yumisawa River, Bonpu River, Dempozawa River, Kourui River, Wada River, and Akabuchi River.
Assignments of national support project: Urui River(especial maintenance area), Yumizawa River basin including Nakazawa River downstream portion